Oyo State Map

Oyo state, an inland state in south-western Nigeria, covers a total land area of approximately 28,454sq.km and has an estimated population of 7,080,532 persons in 2013. Since its creation in 1976, Oyo state has been playing leading roles in many facets/sectors of national development including being

  1. hub of socio-cultural heritage in south-west Nigeria, particularly the Yoruba region;
  2. the educational cradle of the nation and a human resources hub with a multiplicity of universities and higher research institutions; and
  3. a gateway to the coastal mega city of Lagos from the northern part of Nigeria by rail, road, and air.

The State had a total GDP of US$16 billion, with a US$2,666 per capita income in 2010.  In 2003-2004, Oyo was estimated to have a relatively low poverty rate (21 percent) which increased to 29 percent in 2009-2010.

The Oyo State Government adopted a development plan along a 6 points strategy. The plan focused on good governance through: (i) an open data initiative; (ii) the provision of free and qualitative education; (iii) accessible and suitable health care for all and free health services for children and elderly; (iv) rehabilitation and provision of public infrastructure; (v) improving security conditions; and (vi) rural development and integration.

Ibadan Local Government Area

Ibadan is the third largest metropolitan area in Nigeria after Lagos and Kano. With a population of 3.1 million and a land area of 3,850 square kilometers (2013), Ibadan city is the largest metropolitan geographical area in West Africa, housing almost half of Oyo state’s population (45 percent). From around 60,000 in the early 1800s Ibadan’s population grew to 200,000 in 1890, and to a million by 1930, the population is projected to reach 5.6 million by 2033. The city’s urban footprint also grew considerably to its current extent of more than 3,850 square kilometers. This sprawl is primarily due to weak land use planning practices, leading to low population densities (800 people per square kilometer) especially when compared to other large cities (with densities reaching 30,000 to 40,000 people per square kilometer). This sprawl increases the cost of infrastructure development and operations, and maintenance, reduces the urban efficiency and potential quality of life, and accelerates the loss of agriculture lands.

The city of Ibadan has 11 Local Government Areas:

  1. Egbeda
  2. Ibadan North
  3. Akinyele
  4. Ibadan North East
  5. Ibadan North West
  6. Ibadan South East
  7. Ibadan South West
  8. Ido
  9. Lagelu
  10. Oluyole
  11. Ona-Ara

The rapid urban growth in Ibadan has led to both positive and negative externalities. On the positive side, this growth attracted diverse industries, improved access to technologies, developed the socio-cultural infrastructure of the city, improved health standards, increased literacy and education rates, and boosted entrepreneurship, creativity, investments and wealth generation. On the negative side, this rapid growth weakened the prospect of good governance and effectiveness of government policies mostly visible in (i) the proliferation of slums; (ii) increased health hazards due to poor solid waste and wastewater management, resulting for example in the 2013 cholera break-outs in parts of the city; (iii) deteriorated air quality due to energy over consumption; and (iv) the unplanned expansion of the city into high risk areas such as wetlands and flood plains.

Ibadan is highly exposed to frequent flooding. The city has been experiencing an increasing number of flood events during the last 50 years (16 major events recorded). The most recent floods of August 26, 2011 caused significant human and economic losses in the city, primarily in the housing, education, agriculture and transport sectors. Settlements located in unstable and risky locations such as along Ogunpa, Kudeti, Ogbere and Orogun floodplains and the hillsides of Oke-Are, Oke-Aremo, Sapati and Mokola were seriously affected with over 120 fatalities reported. Land use within the city is primarily residential and a majority of Ibadan’s urban poor live in crowded slums within the core residential areas of Ayeye, Agbeni, and Bere and are at increased risk from flood events due to their location in low lying areas. Ibadan city setting is characterized by rugged terrain with wide valley plains. The city is drained by three North-South flowing river systems, namely, Ona River (Western), Ogunpa River (Central) and Ogbere River (Eastern) that flow through the city. These rivers are main drainage channels that cause flooding when not properly regulated. The network of rivers and streams is extensive throughout the city as a result of a combination of the geology of the area and the tropical monsoon climate.

The flood event of August 26, 2011 took place after a downpour rainfall of 187.5 mm (about 7.38”) that occurred in about 4-5 hours accentuated by the overflow from Eleyele reservoir causing the death of more than 120 people and serious damages to infrastructure (many bridges collapsed, roads washed away, and substantial property losses).


The Infrastructure Map is the map of interconnected structural elements that provide a framework that supports the socio-economic development of Ibadan. It includes the roads, rail, bridges and other physical components that enables, sustains, or enhances societal living conditions.

The infrastructure facilitates the production of goods and services, and also the distribution of finished products to markets, as well as to basic social services such as schools and hospitals.

The IUFMP is a multi-sectoral initiative involving multiple dimensions of urban flood management including early warning and response, climate risk mitigation, water resources management, solid waste management, urban land use management and infrastructure development.

The poor operation and maintenance of infrastructures in Ibadan is the major contributor to the inefficient performance of flood management infrastructure observed in 2011 flood. Most of the drainage culverts, drains and roads were constructed more than 20 to 30 years ago. This, along with poor solid waste management practices, weak institutions, poor emergency response services and the prevailing technical gaps has botched previous interventions.

The IUFMP has set short and long term plans that will improve critical infrastructure and rehabilitate drainage culverts, drains and roads. The investments in these targeted sites will improve the city’s overall flood resilience in the long term.

Hydrological Map

The city of Ibadan is naturally drained by four rivers with many tributaries: Ona River in the North and West; Ogbere River towards the East; Ogunpa River flowing through the city and Kudeti River in the Central part of the metropolis. Ogunpa River, a third-order stream with a channel length of 12.76 km and a catchment area of 54.92 km2. Lake Eleyele is located at the northwestern part of the city, while the Osun River and the Asejire Lake bounds the city to the east. The Ogunpa and Ona River are the largest rivers running through Oyo state, Nigeria, situated in the densely-populated town of Ibadan.

The  Ogunpa river is significantly affected by its urban location, with the majority of its annual flood events resulting from direct human activity and urban interference. The intensity of damage caused by flooding of the river varies year to year. However, severe flooding of the Ogunpa River on August 31, 1980 destroyed life and property worth millions of dollars, thus making the Ogunpa a central topic of concern for both the residents of Ibadan and the Government of Nigeria.

The Ogunpa River takes its source from the Ashi village in the Orita Basorun area of Ibadan. It continues to channel through this highly-populated area of the city, despite the industrial, commercial, and residential development that surrounds it. Flooding occurs in the flat or low-lying terrain of Ibadan city where little or no provision has been made for surface drainage. Municipal waste refuse and eroded soil sediments contribute to the lower course stagnation of the river, resulting in poor drainage and a propensity for flooding.

Ibadan urban Flood Project has initiated plans that will improve the state of the rivers and rehabilitate drainage culverts, drains and roads. The investments in these targeted sites will improve the city’s overall flood resilience in the long term.

Socio-Economic Map

Ibadan is the capital city of Oyo State, the fourth largest State economy in Nigeria and the second largest non-oil state economy in Nigeria after Lagos state. With its strategic location on the railway line connecting Lagos to Kano, the city is a major center for trade in cassava, cocoa, cotton, timber, rubber, and palm oil. The city and its environs is home to several industries such as Agro allied, Textile, Food processing, Health Care and Cosmetic, Tobacco processing and Cigarette manufacturing, Leatherworks and furniture making Etc. There is abundance of clay, kaolin and aquamarine in the city environs, and there are several cattle ranches, a dairy farm as well as a commercial abattoir in Ibadan. There are dozens of banks and Insurance firms spread out across the cityscape that service the city’s millions of inhabitants.

The main economic activities engaged in by the Ibadan populace include Agriculture, Trade, Public service employment, Factory work, Service sector/Tertiary production, Etc. The headquarters of the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) have extensive grounds for crop and agricultural research into key tropical crops such as bananas, plantains, maize, cassava, soybean, cowpea and yam. According to a report, Ibadan is the 3rd cheapest Nigerian city to live in.


The IUFMP is a multi-sectoral initiative involving multiple dimensions of urban flood management including early warning and response, climate risk mitigation, water resources management, solid waste management, urban land use management and infrastructure development.